Journal of Applied Computing and Information Technology

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Incorporating the NACCQ publications:
Bulletin of Applied Computing and Information Technology, ISSN 1176-4120
Journal of Applied Computing and Information Technology, ISSN 1174-0175

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Quick APA Guide

Quick APA Guide

While we expect most reviewers will be well versed with APA style guidelines we have included this to help out if needed.

It helps if you think of references as signposts for the readers. In the text, each reference should point clearly and unambiguously to ONE entry in the list of references at the end.

In the list at the end, each reference should give all the information needed for readers to locate the item and read it themselves. When referencing in the text, always show WHO and WHEN. The WHO can appear as part of the sentence or in brackets - whichever makes sense (a simple test whenever you use brackets: if you omit anything in brackets when you read the sentence it should still make sense).

  • For an organisation: put exactly the same name as in the list at the end.
  • For a single author: put the family name (no initials).
  • For two authors: put both family names (no initials) with "&" before the last, always cite both.
  • For three authors: cite them all the first time, after that use "et al." as follows: first name et al. if unique citation, otherwise first two names et al. if unique, otherwise all three names.
  • For four authors: cite them all the first time, after that use "et al." as follows: first name et al. if unique citation, otherwise first two names et al. if unique, otherwise first three names et al. if unique, otherwise all four names.
  • For five authors: cite them all the first time, after that use "et al." as follows: first name et al. if unique citation, otherwise first two names et al. if unique, otherwise first three names et al. if unique, otherwise first four names et al. if unique, otherwise all five names.
  • For six or more authors: first name et al. if unique citation, otherwise first two names et al. if unique, otherwise first three names et al. if unique, otherwise first four names et al. if unique, etc.

The WHEN is just the year, although it may be followed by a page (paragraph) number if you are quoting or referring to a specific section of an article or book (website).

In the list at the end, make sure each entry shows WHO, WHEN, WHAT, WHERE. You should always be able to identify WHO is/are the author(s):

  • If an organisation - the same name as in the text.
  • If an individual - family name then comma then initial(s) followed by full stop(s) if two or more individuals - family names and initials as above, with "&" before the last.
  • If no author - use the title. After WHO, show in brackets WHEN the item was published (not accessed). Either put the year of publication or "n.d." (if no date can be found).

You can also put month (and day if appropriate) in three cases: a website, a newspaper, a periodical which does not use volume and/or issue numbers.

If the same author(s) published more than one item with that date, put an "a" after the first, a "b" after the second, etc.

The WHAT is the title of the article/book/webpage - put the title in italics if it's a complete book.

Each entry finishes with WHERE the item can be found.

  • For articles in books or proceedings, put "In" followed by the name(s) of the editor(s), with initial(s) BEFORE family name(s), followed by the name of the book/proceedings in italics, followed by edition (if appropriate), volume (if appropriate), page number(s).
  • For articles in periodicals (print or electronic), put the name of the journal/magazine/newspaper in italics, followed by volume (if appropriate), issue (if appropriate), page number(s).
  • For books, put the place of publication, followed by a colon, followed by the publisher's name (omitting words like "company").
  • For Websites (including electronic journals) put "Retrieved" date "from" URL.

Getting the references right is important - it is perceived by the reader as a measure of the quality of the publication.

More good general information can be found at:

The full rules are in the 6th edition of APA Publication Manual. Please check the APA website outlining the changes in the 6th edition and use it to update your citation and/or referencing guides: http://www.apastyle.org/manual/whats-new.aspx

SOME EXAMPLES

1. Book

Hosking, R., Joe, S., Joyce, D., & Turner, J. (1996). First steps in numerical analysis (2nd ed.). London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Note:

  • Name of book in italics, upper case for first letter only,
  • Edition in brackets (note style of abbreviations),
  • Colon between place and publisher,
  • First citation: "used in error analysis (Hosking, Joe, Joyce, & Turner, 1996, p. 123)",
  • Later citation: "as suggested by Hosking, et al. (1996)".

2. Conference proceedings

Joyce, D. (2000). The PASS project - Identifying parameters affecting student success. In S. Mann (Ed.), Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (pp. 151-153). Hamilton, New Zealand: NACCQ.

Note:

  • Upper case for first letters of title and subtitle, also acronym.
  • Initial before editor's name, followed by "(Ed.)".
  • Name of proceedings in italics.
  • Upper case for first letters of "major words" in name of conference (not the linking words).
  • "pp." before page numbers (in brackets).

3. Journal

Hawthorn, D., & Joyce, D. (1998). Teaching introductory programming to non-traditional students using Visual Basic. New Zealand Journal of Applied Computing and Information Technology, 2(1), 30-35.

Notes:

  • Upper case for first letter of title, also name of language.
  • Name of journal in italics.
  • Upper case for first letters of "major words" in name of journal (not the linking words).
  • Volume number in italics, then issue number in brackets (not italics).
  • No "pp." before page numbers.
  • Cite as Hawthorn and Joyce (in text) or Hawthorn & Joyce (in brackets).

4. Website

Fielden, K., Joyce, D., & Nodder, C. (2001). Establishing a research culture: Multiple points of view. Paper presented at the Conference on Innovation and Links: Research Management and Development and Postgraduate Education. Retrieved February 28, 2005, from http://www. aut.ac.nz/conferences/innovation/papers.shtml

Notes:

  • Upper case for first letters of title and subtitle.
  • Name of paper in italics.
  • Upper case for first letters of "major words" in name of conference (not the linking words).
  • Date of retrieval specified.

Updated: November 2010 | If you have questions, please contact the editors.